SMART CHARGING, SMART SOCIETIES

Once the use of electric vehicles takes off, intelligent solutions will be required to be able to meet demand. In this context, we must take into account the rise of electric trucks and the strain on the energy infrastructure, among others. Various projects are focusing on the optimal and controlled use of the existing power grid, on the use of types of energy outside that grid and on zero emission trucks within the energy network.

RESEARCH

Diffusion of solar photovoltaic systems and electric vehicles among Dutch consumers: Implications for the energy transition

We investigate differences between PV and EV adopter groups and the implications of these differences for the transition to smart energy systems. We study how socio-demographic characteristics of the consumer base influence regional diffusion patterns and build scenarios to explore the influence of diffusion patterns on the viability of regional EV-PV integration in terms of energy use and regional self-consumption.

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Energy flexibility from large prosumers to support distribution system operation-A technical and legal case study on the Amsterdam arena stadium

To deal with the rising integration of stochastic renewables and energy intensive distributed energy resources (DER) to the electricity network, alternatives to expensive network reinforcements are increasingly needed. An alternative solution often under consideration is integrating flexibility from the consumer side to system management. However, such a solution needs to be contemplated from different angles before it can be implemented in practice. To this end, this article considers a case study of the Amsterdam ArenA stadium and its surrounding network where flexibility is expected to be available to support the network in the future. The article studies the technical aspects of using this flexibility to determine to what extent, despite the different, orthogonal goals, the available flexibility can be used by various stakeholders in scenarios with a large load from electric vehicle charging points. Furthermore, a legal study is performed to determine the feasibility of the technical solutions proposed by analysing current European Union (EU) and Dutch law and focusing on the current agreements existing between the parties involved. The article shows that flexibility in the network provided by Amsterdam ArenA is able to significantly increase the number of charging points the network can accommodate. Nonetheless, while several uses of flexibility are feasible under current law, the use of flexibility provided by electric vehicles specifically faces several legal challenges in current arrangements. © 2018 by the authors.

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Density forecasting of daily electricity demand with ARMA-GARCH, CAViaR, and CARE econometric models

The emerging need for risk-aware operational decisions on power systems calls for the development of accurate probabilistic load forecasting methods. To serve this purpose, various celebrated modeling approaches are applied from the field of economics where uncertainty forecasting has been a longstanding fundamental area of research. In particular, this paper proposes the use of ARMA-GARCH conditional mean–variance model in day-ahead forecasting and evaluates the CAViaR quantile regression model and the CARE expectile regression model as alternatives, with all of them incorporating exogenous inputs. In addition to the conventional quasi-maximum likelihood estimation (QMLE) of the ARMA-GARCH model, a special emphasis is put on least-squares (LS) based iterative and nonlinear estimation schemes. Empirical results are generated based on low-voltage side currents collected from transformers in the Netherlands, with the forecasts being assessed probabilistically via the continuous ranked probability score. Performance comparisons demonstrated improved results with the ARMA-GARCH model in relation to the others. Moreover, its estimation by means of the proposed iterative LS estimation method achieved the best forecast performance in a short runtime, thereby proven to be attractive for practical deployment. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

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A market-based framework for demand side flexibility scheduling and dispatching

The massive integration of renewable energy resources increases the uncertainty with respect to real-time operation of the electrical systems. This transition introduces new challenges and opportunities for various entities that are involved in energy generation, transmission, distribution and consumption such as system operators and market participants in the wholesale electricity market. The concept of Decentralized Energy Management or Demand Response is emerging as one of the main approaches to resolve the violations of the network operation limits and to increase the flexibility of the system. This paper introduces an interaction framework for trading flexibility among proactive end-users in an economically efficient way. It proposes new market participants with their roles and functionalities, that will operate alongside the existing ones to ensure market efficiency and to enable secure operation of distribution grids. The proposed framework consists of a main mechanism called ‘ahead-markets scheduling’. The ahead-markets scheduling includes two sub-mechanisms, day-ahead and intra-day, which are operated by a local flexibility market operator. The ahead-markets scheduling provides a trading platform that allows market participants to reflect their need(s) for flexibility and to monetize flexibility services in a fair and competitive manner. It enables flexibility trades which will eventually facilitate network management for the system operator. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

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Development and Implementation of Statistical Models for Estimating Diversified Adoption of Energy Transition Technologies

For efficient network investments, insight in the expected spatial spread of new load and generation units is of prime importance. This paper presents and applies a method to determine key factors for adoption of photovoltaics, electric vehicles, and heat pumps. Using a logistic regression analysis, the impact of geographical and socio-economic factors on adoption probabilities of these new energy technologies is quantified. Income level, average age, and household composition are shown to be important factors. Additionally, for photovoltaics, peer effects were also shown to significantly influence the likelihood of adoption. The implementation of the developed models and the achievable improvement in prediction accuracy is demonstrated by application to a scenario study based on historical data. The models can be incorporated in future energy scenarios to provide a probabilistic spatial forecast of future penetration levels of the mentioned technologies and identify key areas of interest. © 2010-2012 IEEE.

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Advancing E-roaming in Europe: Towards a single “language” for the European charging infrastructure

The telecom and Internet sectors have gone through a learning curve when it comes to developing the boundary conditions for an efficient and international market, as well as providing a flawless user experience in e.g. cross-border pricing and billing. We translate lessons learned to e-mobility and show how independent protocols such as OCPI will play a crucial role in moving towards an integrated EU-wide charging infrastructure

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Combining the Flexibility From Shared Energy Storage Systems and DLC-Based Demand Response of HVAC Units for Distribution System Operation Enhancement

In this study, a direct load control strategy for procuring flexibility from residential heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) units and the optimal management of shared energy storage systems connected at different buses of a distribution system is proposed, as a new contribution with respect to earlier studies, aiming to minimize the energy demand during DR event periods. Moreover, an additional objective related to the minimization of the end-users’ discomfort induced by the interruption of the HVAC units is considered, leading to the formulation of a bi-level optimization problem based on a second-order conic programming representation of the AC power flow equations. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated by performing simulations on a test system and comparisons with other approaches. © 2018 IEEE.

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Integrating Direct and Indirect Load Control for Congestion Management in LV Networks

With the energy transition, capacity challenges are expected to occur more frequently in low-voltage (LV) distribution networks. In the literature, several direct and indirect load control methods have been suggested as solutions to alleviate network congestion. Direct methods involve the network operator directly controlling appliances at the households, while indirect methods aim to motivate end-users to shift their consumption through price changes. In this paper, the direct and indirect methods are combined into an integrated approach, making use of the advantages of both methods. An agent-based architecture is adopted so that distributed and computational intelligence can be combined to ensure a smooth coordination among the actors. A sensitivity-based curtailment scheme is used to incorporate the unbalanced loading condition of the LV networks. The efficiency of the proposed integrated approach is investigated through simulations in the unbalanced IEEE European LV test feeder. Simulation results reveal up to 94% reduction in congestion by the integrated approach, while maintaining the required levels of supply in the network. © 2010-2012 IEEE.

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Smart appliances for efficient integration of solar energy: A Dutch case study of a residential smart grid pilot

This paper analyzes the use patterns of a residential smart grid pilot in the Netherlands, called PowerMatching City. The analysis is based on detailed monitoring data measured at 5-min intervals for the year 2012, originating from this pilot which was realized in 2007 in Groningen, Netherlands. In this pilot, smart appliances, heat pumps, micro-combined heat and power (μ-CHP), and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have been installed to evaluate their efficiency, their ability to reduce peak electricity purchase, and their effects on self-sufficiency and on the local use of solar electricity. As a result of the evaluation, diverse yearly and weekly indicators have been determined, such as electricity purchase and delivery, solar production, flexible generation, and load. Depending on the household configuration, up to 40% of self-sufficiency is achieved on an annual average basis, and 14.4% of the total consumption were flexible. In general, we can conclude that micro-CHP contributed to keep purchase from the grid relatively constant throughout the seasons. Adding to that, smart appliances significantly contributed to load shifting in peak times. It is recommended that similar evaluations will be conducted in other smart grid pilots to statistically enhance insights in the functioning of residential smart grids. © 2019 by the authors.

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Smart Charging of electric vehicles

This report identifies obstacles to the development of smart charging of electric vehicles and it provides an overview of ways to eliminate bottlenecks. It’s an instrument market and policy makers can use to put specific ideas into practice, to accelerate the development of smart charging.

PWC Smart Charging van elektrische voertuigen, institutionele knelpunten en mogelijke oplossingen (Research in Dutch)

Smart charging TSE Urban Energy

The aim of this project is finding a more sustainable and cheaper way to charge an EV. Software was developed that is able to pool electricity demand of EVs and can activate flexible load in case of grid emergency or at times of high electricity demand.

Topsector Energie Smart charging TSE Urban Energy (in Dutch)

HTC: the world’s smartest grid

Regional smart grid at the High Tech Campus Eindhoven (business area) with EVs and charging points. HTC contains an open smart charging protocol, with a 24 hours forecast of available cable capacity.

Topsector Energie HTC: the world’s smartest grid (in Dutch)

Universal smart energy framework (USEF)

A framework designed for trading flexibility of electrical equipment by an electricity generator. Electricity stored by EVs is essential to this framework.

Topsector Energie Universal smart energy framework (USEF) (in Dutch)

Smart grid in sustainable Lochem

A stress test proves the necessity of smart charging solutions. Demand and supply of electricity for charging EVs is managed by PowerMatcher. EV drivers feed their preferences (like start and end charging time) into an app. Charging capacity is then spread over available charging time.

Topsector Energie Intelligent Net in duurzaam Lochem (in Dutch)

Smart Grid V2X

Electricity generated from solar panels for individual house holds is being stored by an electric vehicle. This way, EVs are being used to charge and decharge, avoiding an overload on the electricity grid.

Topsector Energie Smart Grid V2X

Future-proof Flexible Charging

Electric vehicles can improve the quality of life in metropolitan areas, and flexible charging can support the transition to solar and wind energy. Charging needs to be planned in periods with a lot of sun and wind, when electricity prices are low. Furthermore, batteries need to be sufficiently charged within a short amount of time. However, exactly how much energy can be generated using sun and wind depends on the weather, and the level of charging flexibility depends on the drivers. Recently-developed planning algorithms can accommodate these kinds of uncertainties.

Amsterdam Institute for advanced metropolitan solutions

Charging free floating shared cars in metropolitan areas

Electric car sharing provides plenty of benefits for the urban area.The increasing number of free floating electric car sharing (FFECS), shared vehicles that can be picked up and left everywhere in the city borders, results in a new group with their own charging behaviour. This research focussed on a FFECS system in Amsterdam. Based on over 1,5 million observations, parking patterns and charging patterns were mapped.

Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences Charging free floating shared cars in metropolitan areas

V2G Repository: 18 European V2G projects

An overview of 18 Vehicle-to-Grid projects, by the department of Urban Technology at the  Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences. All projects were executed in collaboration with various research partners.

Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences V2G Repository: 18 European V2G projects

Charging Infrastructure Guidelines

Market parties, government and research institutes collaborated in developing charging infrastructure guidelines. Data were used from the cities of The Hague, Amsterdam and urban areas in the Gelderland province.

NKL – Netherlands Knowledge Platform for Charging Infrastructure Charging infrastructure Guidelines (In Dutch – Kencijfers Laadinfrastructuur EV)
Colofon: ARCHI 2019 © NKL Nederland – www.nklnederland.nl | Contact: futureofcharging@nklnederland.nl